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Saltwater Coastal Carbon Flux Synthesis


At a Glance


Authors: John Kominoski
Time period: 2000-01-01 to 2020-12-31
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1231.1

How to cite:
Kominoski, J.. 2021. Saltwater Coastal Carbon Flux Synthesis. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/27afcea3bab0adc058457705506248f8. Dataset accessed 2022-12-05.

Geographic Coverage


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  • Dataset Abstract
    We collated published and unpublished data from studies that measured net ecosystem exchange as carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (and methane, CH4, where available) from wetlands that varied in surface water and porewater salinity concentrations (both manipulative experiments and observations). Studies were selected to minimize the influence of exogenous covariates such as land-use, hydrologic, and water quality changes. We calculated minimum, maximum, and median values from time series of gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ERCO2, ERCH4), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We included data that were measured at daily and monthly scales. Whenever possible, we used measured porewater salinities. If porewater data were not available, we used measured surface water salinities. We calculated the change in salinity as the difference between ambient and elevated concentrations from experimental salinity additions, or as the differences in observed salinities between freshwater and brackish marshes or freshwater and saltwater marshes. We calculated the % difference of change in median values of GEP, ERCO2, ERCH4, and NEP using the following equation: Percent (%) Difference in Median = [(elevated-ambient) / |ambient|] x 100
  • Geographic Coverage
    Bounding Coordinates
    FCE Fresh Marsh
    N: 25.435278, S: 25.435278, E: -80.780972, W: -80.780972

    FCE Brackish
    N: 25.220381, S: 25.220381, E: -80.8436, W: -80.8436

    Weeks Bay/Dog River/Dauphin Island
    N: 30.442667, S: 30.442667, E: -87.808667, W: -87.808667

    Weeks Bay/Dog River/Dauphin Island
    N: 30.5855, S: 30.5855, E: -88.1175, W: -88.1175

    Weeks Bay/Dog River/Dauphin Island
    N: 30.257167, S: 30.257167, E: -88.123967, W: -88.123967

    Delaware River Estuary
    N: 39.789745, S: 39.789745, E: -75.357335, W: -75.357335

    Delaware River Estuary
    N: 39.624341, S: 39.624341, E: -75.452013, W: -75.452013

    Delaware River Estuary
    N: 39.432621, S: 39.432621, E: -75.413376, W: -75.413376

    Altamaha River
    N: 31.339398, S: 31.339398, E: -81.466683, W: -81.466683

    FCE Fresh Mesocosm
    N: 25.086027, S: 25.086027, E: -80.452157, W: -80.452157

    Waccamaw River
    N: 33.524992, S: 33.524992, E: -79.091896, W: -79.091896

    Coastal Louisiana
    N: 29.85869, S: 29.85869, E: -90.286889, W: -90.286889

    Coastal Louisiana
    N: 29.501325, S: 29.501325, E: -90.444903, W: -90.444903

    Tajiaozhou, Min River Estuary, SE China
    N: 25.96, S: 25.96, E: 119.379167, W: 119.379167

    FCE Freshwater Mesocosm
    N: 25.086027, S: 25.086027, E: -80.452157, W: -80.452157

    Pamunkey River, VA
    N: 37.557255, S: 37.557255, E: -76.972645, W: -76.972645

    Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA
    N: 29.463963, S: 29.463963, E: -89.965808, W: -89.965808

    Yorktown, Virginia, USA
    N: 37.267303, S: 37.267303, E: -76.556615, W: -76.556615

    River Colne, United Kingdom
    N: 51.772783, S: 51.772783, E: 1.043404, W: 1.043404

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, USA
    N: 38.407396, S: 38.407396, E: -75.981606, W: -75.981606

    Ebro Delta marshes (FBIO)
    N: 40.663111, S: 40.663111, E: 0.703076, W: 0.703076

    Ebro Delta marshes (ALFA)
    N: 40.638078, S: 40.638078, E: 0.743148, W: 0.743148

  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Data file for Saltwater Coastal Carbon Synthesis
      Attribute Name:
      Site
      Attribute Label:
      Site
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of site or project
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of site or project
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Salinity
      Attribute Label:
      Salinity
      Attribute Definition:
      Median concentration of porewater or surface water salinity during the study
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: parts per thousand
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Salinity.change
      Attribute Label:
      Salinity.change
      Attribute Definition:
      Change in median porewater or surface water salinity concentrations during the study.
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Units
      Attribute Label:
      Units
      Attribute Definition:
      Carbon flux units of measure
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      gC.m2.d= grams of carbon per square meter per day
      gC.m2.mo= grams of carbon per square meter per month
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Type
      Attribute Label:
      Type
      Attribute Definition:
      Salinity exposure type
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      manipulation= studies that used experimental salinity additions or manipulations
      salinity gradient= studies that made measurements along natural salinity gradients in the field
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      GEPmin
      Attribute Label:
      GEPmin
      Attribute Definition:
      Minimum value of Gross Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      GEPmax
      Attribute Label:
      GEPmax
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum value of Gross Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      GEPmedian
      Attribute Label:
      GEPmedian
      Attribute Definition:
      Median value of Gross Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      GEPmediandifference
      Attribute Label:
      GEPmediandifference
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent difference in median value of Gross Ecosystem Productivity between elevated and ambient salinities
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      ERmin
      Attribute Label:
      ERmin
      Attribute Definition:
      Minimum value of Ecosystem Respiration
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      ERmax
      Attribute Label:
      ERmax
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum value of Ecosystem Respiration
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      ERmedian
      Attribute Label:
      ERmedian
      Attribute Definition:
      Median value of Ecosystem Respiration
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      ERmediandifference
      Attribute Label:
      ERmediandifference
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent difference in median value of Ecosystem Respiration between elevated and ambient salinities
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      NEPmin
      Attribute Label:
      NEPmin
      Attribute Definition:
      Minimum value of Net Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      NEPmax
      Attribute Label:
      NEPmax
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum value of Net Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      NEPmedian
      Attribute Label:
      NEPmedian
      Attribute Definition:
      Median value of Net Ecosystem Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      NEPmediandifference
      Attribute Label:
      NEPmediandifference
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent difference in median value of Net Ecosystem Productivity between elevated and ambient salinities
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      CH4min
      Attribute Label:
      CH4min
      Attribute Definition:
      Minimum value of Methane Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      CH4max
      Attribute Label:
      CH4max
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum value of Methane Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      CH4median
      Attribute Label:
      CH4median
      Attribute Definition:
      Median value of Methane Productivity
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: grams carbon per square meter per day OR grams carbon per square meter per month
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      CH4mediandifference
      Attribute Label:
      CH4mediandifference
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent difference in median value of Methane Productivity between elevated and ambient salinities
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Latitude
      Attribute Label:
      Latitude
      Attribute Definition:
      Decimal degrees latitude
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: decimal degrees
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Longitude
      Attribute Label:
      Longitude
      Attribute Definition:
      Decimal degrees longitude
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: decimal degrees
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       


  • Methods
    Method Step

    Description
    We collated published and unpublished data from studies that measured net ecosystem exchange as carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (and methane, CH4, where available) from wetlands that varied in surface water and porewater salinity concentrations (both manipulative experiments and observations). Studies were selected to minimize the influence of exogenous covariates such as land-use, hydrologic, and water quality changes. We calculated minimum, maximum, and median values from time series of gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ERCO2, ERCH4), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We included data that were measured at daily and monthly scales (see References below). Whenever possible, we used measured porewater salinities. If porewater data were not available, we used measured surface water salinities. We calculated the change in salinity as the difference between ambient and elevated concentrations from experimental salinity additions, or as the differences in observed salinities between freshwater and brackish marshes or freshwater and saltwater marshes. We calculated the % difference of change in median values of GEP, ERCO2, ERCH4, and NEP using the following equation: Percent (%) Difference in Median = [(elevated-ambient) / |ambient|] x 100

    References:
    B. J. Wilson et al., Salinity pulses interact with seasonal dry-down to increase ecosystem carbon loss in marshes of the Florida Everglades. Ecol. Appl. 28, 2092-2108 (2018).

    S. C. Neubauer, Ecosystem responses of a tidal freshwater marsh experiencing saltwater intrusion and altered hydrology. Estuar. Coast. 36, 491-507 (2013).

    B. J. Wilson et al., Declines in plant productivity drive carbon loss from brackish coastal wetland mesocosms exposed to saltwater intrusion. Estuar. Coast. 41, 2147-2158 (2018).

    B. J. Wilson et al., Spatial and temporal variability in carbon dioxide and methane exchange at three coastal marshes along a salinity gradient in a northern Gulf of Mexico estuary. Biogeochemistry 123, 329-347 (2015).

    N. B. Weston et al., Accelerated microbial organic matter mineralization following salt-water intrusion into tidal freshwater marsh soils. Biogeochemistry 102, 135-151 (2011).

    E. R. Herbert et al., Differential effects of chronic and acute simulated seawater intrusion on tidal freshwater marsh carbon cycling. Biogeochemistry 138, 137-154 (2018).

    B. J. Wilson et al., Phosphorus alleviation of salinity stress: effects of saltwater intrusion on an Everglades freshwater peat marsh. Ecology 100, e02672 (2019).

    K. W. Krauss et al., Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: Pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance. JGR Biogeosci. 121, 1503-1521 (2016).

    C. Tong et al., Greenhouse gas fluxes and porewater geochemistry following short-term pulses of saltwater and Fe(III) in a subtropical tidal freshwater estuarine marsh. Geoderma 369, 114340 (2020).

    H. J. Poffenbarger, B. A. Needelman, J. P. Megonigal, Salinity influences on methane emissions from tidal marshes. Wetlands 31, 831-842 (2011).

    D. Morant et al. Carbon metabolic rates and GHG emissions in different wetland types of the Ebro Delta. PLoS ONE 15, e0231713 (2020).


  • Intellectual Rights
    Intellectual Rights
    This information is released under the Creative Commons license - Attribution - CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The consumer of these data ("Data User" herein) is required to cite it appropriately in any publication that results from its use. The Data User should realize that these data may be actively used by others for ongoing research and that coordination may be necessary to prevent duplicate publication. The Data User is urged to contact the authors of these data if any questions about methodology or results occur. Where appropriate, the Data User is encouraged to consider collaboration or co-authorship with the authors. The Data User should realize that misinterpretation of data may occur if used out of context of the original study. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and associated documentation, complete accuracy of data sets cannot be guaranteed. All data are made available "as is." The Data User should be aware, however, that data are updated periodically and it is the responsibility of the Data User to check for new versions of the data. The data authors and the repository where these data were obtained shall not be liable for damages resulting from any use or misinterpretation of the data. Thank you.

  • Publications citing this dataset
    Kominoski, John, Scott Neubauer, Ryan Bremen, Antonio Camacho, Alba Camacho-Santamans, Sean Charles, Julia Cherry, Evelyn Gaiser, Keryn Gedan, Ashley Helton, Ellen Herbert, Khandker Ishtiaq, Matthew Kirwan, Ken Krauss, Lukas Lamb-Wotton, Daniel Morant, Gregory Noe, Michael Osland, Elena Solohin, Tiffany Troxler, Kate Tully, and Benjamin Wilson. . Salinity reduces coastal marsh respiration more than photosynthesis.  

    DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-880205/v1

  • Keywords
    net ecosystem productivity, saltwater intrusion, sea-level rise, carbon cycle, coastal
  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Data file for Saltwater Coastal Carbon Synthesis

    Entity Name:
    salinity.C.flux.060321
    Entity Description:
    Data file for Saltwater Coastal Carbon Synthesis
    Object Name:
    salinity.C.flux.060321.csv
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    37