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Quantitative and qualitative aspects of dissolved organic carbon leached from plant biomass in Taylor Slough, Shark River and Florida Bay (FCE) for samples collected in July 2004


At a Glance


Authors: Rudolf Jaffe
Time period: 2004-07-22 to 2004-08-22
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1102.2
Dataset id: ST_ND_Jaffe_001

How to cite:
Jaffe, R.. 2005. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of dissolved organic carbon leached from plant biomass in Taylor Slough, Shark River and Florida Bay (FCE) for samples collected in July 2004. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/22916d1d52d8a756020b8c7537b1bd87. Dataset accessed 2020-10-26.

Geographic Coverage


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Detailed Metadata


  • Dataset Abstract
    Plant biomass was collected from Taylor Slough, Shark River and Florida Bay in Everglades National Park. Samples were taken to the lab and incubated with Milli-Q water in the dark for a period of 36 days. NaN3 was added to half the bottles to test the role of microbial activity on the leaching rates and composition of leachate. Every three days the water was decanted and replaced with fresh Milli-Q water. The decanted samples were filtered and analyzed for DOC concentration, sugar content, and total phenol content.
  • Geographic Coverage
    Study Extent Description
    The Study Extent of this dataset includes biomass samples collected from the Everglades National Park, South Florida.

    Bounding Coordinates
    Biomass samples were collected in the Everglades National Park, South Florida.
    N: 25.404, S: 25.025, E: -80.607, W: -80.681

    Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Study Area: South Florida, Everglades National Park, and Florida Bay
    N: 25.761, S: 24.913, E: -80.490, W: -81.078

    FCE LTER Sites
    TS/Ph2, TS/Ph7b, TS/Ph10

    All Sites
    Geographic Description
    Bounding Coordinates
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph7b
    N: 25.197, S: 25.197, E: -80.642, W: -80.642
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph2
    N: 25.404, S: 25.404, E: -80.607, W: -80.607
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph10
    N: 25.025, S: 25.025, E: -80.681, W: -80.681
  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Qualitative and quantitative aspects of dissolved organic carbon leached from plants in an oligotrophic wetland.
      Attribute Name:
      SITENAME
      Attribute Label:
      sitename
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of LTER site
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of LTER site
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Sample_ID
      Attribute Label:
      Sample
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of plant biomass
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of plant biomass
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Date
      Attribute Label:
      Date
      Attribute Definition:
      Collection Date
      Storage Type:
      datetime
      Measurement Scale:
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      TOC
      Attribute Label:
      Total organic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Total organic carbon concentration
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: gramsPerKilogram
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Polyphenols
      Attribute Label:
      Polyphenols
      Attribute Definition:
      Total phenol concentration
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: gramsPerKilogram
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Sugars
      Attribute Label:
      Sugars
      Attribute Definition:
      Total sugar concentration
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: gramsPerKilogram
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )


  • Methods
    Sampling Description
    Senescent yellow leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were handpicked from trees along the mangrove fringe of Northeast Florida Bay (TS/Ph7b = 25 degrees 19 minutes N, -80 degrees 64 minutes W). Senescent above-ground plant biomass samples of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), spikerush (Eleocharis cellulosa), cattail (Typha domingensis), and both dry and wet periphyton mats were collected from a freshwater prairie in ENP (TS/Ph2 = 25 degrees 40 minutes N, -80 degrees 61 minutes W). Both dry and wet periphyton mats were investigated in this experiment because dry periphyton, which is formed in the slough during the dry season, is considered to contribute DOM when it is rewetted in the beginning of the rainy season, while wet periphyton from high hydroperiod areas produce DOM throughout the entire season. Seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) was collected from Florida Bay (TS/Ph10 = 25 degrees 02 minutes N, -80 degrees 68 minutes W). Sawgrass, spikerush, and cattail sheaths and blades were cut into fragments about 8 cm in length, while dried periphyton samples were passed through a 5-mm mesh sieve to minimize the variation in the quality between replicates. Mangrove leaves and wet periphyton were used without any pretreatment. Seagrass blades were used after a gentle rinsing with Milli-Q water.

    Method Step

    Description
    Ten grams of biomass sample (20 g of periphyton) were placed into 250-ml Nalgene brown bottles. The bottles were filled with 200-250 ml of Milli-Q water and incubated in the dark. Milli-Q water was used as the extractant to avoid (1) post-leaching processing of DOM such as complexation/precipitation and oxidation/polymerization, which affect the quantitative analyses of leachate, and (2) contamination of natural water UDOM in biomass leached UDOM. Furthermore, polyphenols especially leached from mangrove leaves are unstable under high salinity conditions (unpublished data); we therefore used Milli-Q water to investigate the potential leaching amount of DOC from biomass. To unify the experimental conditions, seagrass was also immersed into Milli-Q water. We added 1 mg ml-1 of NaN3 as a bacteriostat to half of the bottles (referred as to w/ NaN3, and w/o NaN3 treatments, respectively) to test the role of microbial activity on the leaching rates and composition of leachate. The incubations ran for 36 days, and every three days, the water was decanted from each bottle and replaced with fresh Milli-Q water (w/ or w/o NaN3). The decanted samples were first filtered through pre-combusted (470 degrees C for 4h) GF-F glass fiber filters (nominal pore size, 0.7 um), and then through a 0.22 um Durapore membrane filter. Water samples decanted from the periphyton treatments were centrifuged to remove suspended solids at 3,000 rpm for 10 min before filtration. The precipitation obtained by centrifugation was returned to the sample bottle. The filtered water samples were stored at 4 degrees C for no more than 1 week before analyses. The DOC content of the water samples was analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer after acidifying the sample (pH less than 2) with HCl and purging with N2 gas for 5 min. Although some mangrove leachate produced a fine particulate upon acidification, probably due to aggregation of polyphenols, they were uniformly dispersed through purging with N2 gas, and the average of standard deviation (SD) of measurements was less than 3%. The sugar content of the water samples was analyzed colorimetrically using the Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method (Dubois et al. 1956; Liu et al. 1973). Briefly, 1 ml of water sample and 1 ml of 5% phenol aqueous solution (w/v) was pipetted into a test tube, and then 5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added. After mixing vigorously with a vortex mixer, the solution was shaken on a reciprocating shaker for 30 min and the absorbance at 490 nm was measured using a UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer. Glucose solutions, of concentrations ranging from 4 to 40 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorption = 0.01) was around 0.4 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette. Total phenol content was measured colorimetrically using Folin-Denis Method (Waterman & Mole 1994). Briefly, a 0.2-3.4 ml aliquot of water sample was pipetted into a test tube and the volume was increased to 3.4 ml by adding Milli-Q water if necessary. Then 0.2 ml of Folin-Denis reagent and 0.4 ml of saturated sodium carbonate solution were added in sequence. After standing for 30 min, the absorbance at 760 nm was measured on a Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-visible spectrophotometer. Tannic acid solutions, of concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorbance = 0.01) was around 0.25 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette.

    Citation
    Dubois, M 1956-01-01. Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances.. Analytical Chemistry, 28: 350-356.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman GF/F glass fiber filtersNalgene polyethylene bottlesShimadzu 2101PC SpectrophotometerCarlo Erba NA 1500 Nitrogen/Carbon Analyzer (Carlo Erba, Milan, Italy).

    Method Step

    Description
    Ten grams of biomass sample (20 g of periphyton) were placed into 250-ml Nalgene brown bottles. The bottles were filled with 200-250 ml of Milli-Q water and incubated in the dark. Milli-Q water was used as the extractant to avoid (1) post-leaching processing of DOM such as complexation/precipitation and oxidation/polymerization, which affect the quantitative analyses of leachate, and (2) contamination of natural water UDOM in biomass leached UDOM. Furthermore, polyphenols especially leached from mangrove leaves are unstable under high salinity conditions (unpublished data); we therefore used Milli-Q water to investigate the potential leaching amount of DOC from biomass. To unify the experimental conditions, seagrass was also immersed into Milli-Q water. We added 1 mg ml-1 of NaN3 as a bacteriostat to half of the bottles (referred as to w/ NaN3, and w/o NaN3 treatments, respectively) to test the role of microbial activity on the leaching rates and composition of leachate. The incubations ran for 36 days, and every three days, the water was decanted from each bottle and replaced with fresh Milli-Q water (w/ or w/o NaN3). The decanted samples were first filtered through pre-combusted (470 degrees C for 4h) GF-F glass fiber filters (nominal pore size, 0.7 um), and then through a 0.22 um Durapore membrane filter. Water samples decanted from the periphyton treatments were centrifuged to remove suspended solids at 3,000 rpm for 10 min before filtration. The precipitation obtained by centrifugation was returned to the sample bottle. The filtered water samples were stored at 4 degrees C for no more than 1 week before analyses. The DOC content of the water samples was analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer after acidifying the sample (pH less than 2) with HCl and purging with N2 gas for 5 min. Although some mangrove leachate produced a fine particulate upon acidification, probably due to aggregation of polyphenols, they were uniformly dispersed through purging with N2 gas, and the average of standard deviation (SD) of measurements was less than 3%. The sugar content of the water samples was analyzed colorimetrically using the Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method (Dubois et al. 1956; Liu et al. 1973). Briefly, 1 ml of water sample and 1 ml of 5% phenol aqueous solution (w/v) was pipetted into a test tube, and then 5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added. After mixing vigorously with a vortex mixer, the solution was shaken on a reciprocating shaker for 30 min and the absorbance at 490 nm was measured using a UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer. Glucose solutions, of concentrations ranging from 4 to 40 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorption = 0.01) was around 0.4 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette. Total phenol content was measured colorimetrically using Folin-Denis Method (Waterman & Mole 1994). Briefly, a 0.2-3.4 ml aliquot of water sample was pipetted into a test tube and the volume was increased to 3.4 ml by adding Milli-Q water if necessary. Then 0.2 ml of Folin-Denis reagent and 0.4 ml of saturated sodium carbonate solution were added in sequence. After standing for 30 min, the absorbance at 760 nm was measured on a Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-visible spectrophotometer. Tannic acid solutions, of concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorbance = 0.01) was around 0.25 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette.

    Citation
    Liu, D 1973-01-01. Determination of carbohydrates in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method.. Water Research, 7: 741-746.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman GF/F glass fiber filtersNalgene polyethylene bottlesShimadzu 2101PC SpectrophotometerCarlo Erba NA 1500 Nitrogen/Carbon Analyzer (Carlo Erba, Milan, Italy).

    Method Step

    Description
    Ten grams of biomass sample (20 g of periphyton) were placed into 250-ml Nalgene brown bottles. The bottles were filled with 200-250 ml of Milli-Q water and incubated in the dark. Milli-Q water was used as the extractant to avoid (1) post-leaching processing of DOM such as complexation/precipitation and oxidation/polymerization, which affect the quantitative analyses of leachate, and (2) contamination of natural water UDOM in biomass leached UDOM. Furthermore, polyphenols especially leached from mangrove leaves are unstable under high salinity conditions (unpublished data); we therefore used Milli-Q water to investigate the potential leaching amount of DOC from biomass. To unify the experimental conditions, seagrass was also immersed into Milli-Q water. We added 1 mg ml-1 of NaN3 as a bacteriostat to half of the bottles (referred as to w/ NaN3, and w/o NaN3 treatments, respectively) to test the role of microbial activity on the leaching rates and composition of leachate. The incubations ran for 36 days, and every three days, the water was decanted from each bottle and replaced with fresh Milli-Q water (w/ or w/o NaN3). The decanted samples were first filtered through pre-combusted (470 degrees C for 4h) GF-F glass fiber filters (nominal pore size, 0.7 um), and then through a 0.22 um Durapore membrane filter. Water samples decanted from the periphyton treatments were centrifuged to remove suspended solids at 3,000 rpm for 10 min before filtration. The precipitation obtained by centrifugation was returned to the sample bottle. The filtered water samples were stored at 4 degrees C for no more than 1 week before analyses. The DOC content of the water samples was analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer after acidifying the sample (pH less than 2) with HCl and purging with N2 gas for 5 min. Although some mangrove leachate produced a fine particulate upon acidification, probably due to aggregation of polyphenols, they were uniformly dispersed through purging with N2 gas, and the average of standard deviation (SD) of measurements was less than 3%. The sugar content of the water samples was analyzed colorimetrically using the Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method (Dubois et al. 1956; Liu et al. 1973). Briefly, 1 ml of water sample and 1 ml of 5% phenol aqueous solution (w/v) was pipetted into a test tube, and then 5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added. After mixing vigorously with a vortex mixer, the solution was shaken on a reciprocating shaker for 30 min and the absorbance at 490 nm was measured using a UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer. Glucose solutions, of concentrations ranging from 4 to 40 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorption = 0.01) was around 0.4 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette. Total phenol content was measured colorimetrically using Folin-Denis Method (Waterman & Mole 1994). Briefly, a 0.2-3.4 ml aliquot of water sample was pipetted into a test tube and the volume was increased to 3.4 ml by adding Milli-Q water if necessary. Then 0.2 ml of Folin-Denis reagent and 0.4 ml of saturated sodium carbonate solution were added in sequence. After standing for 30 min, the absorbance at 760 nm was measured on a Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-visible spectrophotometer. Tannic acid solutions, of concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mg C L-1, were used as calibration standards. The detection limit of this method (absorbance = 0.01) was around 0.25 mg C L-1 with a 1-cm pathlength quartz cuvette.

    Citation
    Waterman, P G 1994-01-01. Analysis of phenolic plant metabolites.. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, London, 238 pp.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman GF/F glass fiber filtersNalgene polyethylene bottlesShimadzu 2101PC SpectrophotometerCarlo Erba NA 1500 Nitrogen/Carbon Analyzer (Carlo Erba, Milan, Italy).

    Quality Control
    Statistical analyses (Student's T-test), a curve-fit, and a nonhierarchical principal compponent analysis (PCA) were performed for data quality and significance.
  • Distribution and Intellectual Rights
    Online distribution
    http://fcelter.fiu.edu/perl/public_data_download.pl?datasetid=ST_ND_Jaffe_001.txt
    Data Submission Date:  2005-09-08

    Intellectual Rights
    These data are classified as 'Type II' whereby original FCE LTER experimental data collected by individual FCE researchers to be released to restricted audiences according to terms specified by the owners of the data. Type II data are considered to be exceptional and should be rare in occurrence. The justification for exceptions must be well documented and approved by the lead PI and Site Data Manager. Some examples of Type II data restrictions may include: locations of rare or endangered species, data that are covered under prior licensing or copyright (e.g., SPOT satellite data), or covered by the Human Subjects Act, Student Dissertation data and those data related to the FCE LTER Program but not funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under LTER grants #DEB-9910514, and # DBI-0620409. Researchers that make use of Type II Data may be subject to additional restrictions to protect any applicable commercial or confidentiality interests. All publications based on this dataset must cite the data Contributor, the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program and that this material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation through the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research program under Cooperative Agreements #DEB-1237517, #DBI-0620409, and #DEB-9910514. Additionally, two copies of the manuscript must be submitted to the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program Office, LTER Program Manager, Florida International University, Southeast Environmental Research Center, OE 148, University Park, Miami, Florida 33199. For a complete description of the FCE LTER Data Access Policy and Data User Agreement, please go to FCE Data Management Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/DataMgmt.pdf and LTER Network Data Access Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/core/data_user_agreement/distribution_policy.html.

  • Keywords
    FCE, Florida Coastal Everglades LTER, ecological research, long-term monitoring, Everglades National Park, Taylor Slough, biomass, plants, plant biomass, Shark River Slough, Florida Bay, NaN3, DOC, Total sugars, Total phenol, Ultrafiltration, 13C NMR, TMAH thermochemolysis, TOC, Polyphenol, Sugar, periphyton, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, carbon
  • Dataset Contact
    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: LTER Network Office
    • Address: UNM Biology Department, MSC03-2020
      1 University of New Mexico
      Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 USA
    • Phone: 505 277-2535
    • Fax: 505 277-2541
    • Email: tech-support@lternet.edu
    • URL: http://www.lternet.edu

    • Name: Rudolf Jaffe 
    • Position: Project Collaborator
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, Florida 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-2456
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: jaffer@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://serc.fiu.edu/sercindex/index.htm

    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, FL 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-6054
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: fcelter@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://fcelter.fiu.edu

  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Qualitative and quantitative aspects of dissolved organic carbon leached from plants in an oligotrophic wetland.

    Entity Name:
    ST_ND_Jaffe_001
    Entity Description:
    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of dissolved organic carbon leached from plants in an oligotrophic wetland.
    Object Name:
    ST_ND_Jaffe_001
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    168