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Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, USA (FCE LTER) for 2012 to Present


At a Glance


Authors: John Kominoski
Time period: 2012-01-01 to 2020-12-31
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1234.1

How to cite:
Kominoski, J.. 2021. Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida, USA (FCE LTER) for 2012 to Present. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/d1abed5732fe4f4b086e092fb85bf431. Dataset accessed 2022-12-05.

Geographic Coverage


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Detailed Metadata


  • Dataset Abstract
    Dissolved organic matter plays an important role in biogeochemical processes in aquatic environments such as elemental cycling, microbial loop energetics, and the transport of materials across landscapes. Since most of N (> 90%) and P (around 90%) is in the organic form in the oligotrophic subtropical Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE), study of the source and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ecosystem is crucial for the better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. FCE are composed of estuaries with distinct regions with different biogeochemical processes. Freshwater marsh primarily receives terrestrial input and local autochthonous vegetation production. Mangrove ecotone, nevertheless, is affected by the tidal contributions from Florida Bay and local mangrove production. Florida Bay (FB) is a wedge-shaped shallow oligotrophic estuary which lays south of the Everglades, the bottom of which is covered with a dense biomass of seagrass. The sources of both freshwater and nutrients in FCE are difficult to quantify, owing to the non-point source nature of runoff from the Everglades and the dendritic cross channels in the mangroves. Furthermore, the combination of multiple DOM sources (freshwater marsh vegetation, mangroves, phytoplankton, seagrass, etc.), and the potential seasonal variability of their relative contribution, along with the history of (photo)chemical and microbial diagenetic processing, and complex advective circulation, makes the study of DOM dynamics in FCE particularly difficult using standard schemes of estuarine ecology. Quantitative information of DOM is very useful to investigate the biogeochemical cycling of DOM to a certain degree, however, qualitative information is necessary to better understand the source and dynamics of DOM. Since fluorescence spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive, quick and simple, they have been applied to investigate the fate of DOM in estuaries.
  • Geographic Coverage
    Bounding Coordinates
    SRS1d
    N: 25.7463, S: 25.7463, E: -80.6537, W: -80.6537

    SRS2
    N: 25.54973, S: 25.54973, E: -80.78520999999999, W: -80.78520999999999

    SRS3
    N: 25.46821, S: 25.46821, E: -80.85328, W: -80.85328

    SRS4
    N: 25.409760000000002, S: 25.409760000000002, E: -80.96431, W: -80.96431

    SRS5
    N: 25.37702, S: 25.37702, E: -81.03235, W: -81.03235

    SRS6
    N: 25.36463, S: 25.36463, E: -81.07795, W: -81.07795

    TS1a
    N: 25.42389, S: 25.42389, E: -80.5903, W: -80.5903

    TS2
    N: 25.403570000000002, S: 25.403570000000002, E: -80.6069, W: -80.6069

    TS3
    N: 25.25241, S: 25.25241, E: -80.66272, W: -80.66272

    TS4
    N: 25.31472, S: 25.31472, E: -80.52209, W: -80.52209

    TS5
    N: 25.29479, S: 25.29479, E: -80.52024, W: -80.52024

    TS6a
    N: 25.21418, S: 25.21418, E: -80.64908, W: -80.64908

    TS7a
    N: 25.1908, S: 25.1908, E: -80.63911, W: -80.63911

    TS9
    N: 25.17693, S: 25.17693, E: -80.48978000000001, W: -80.48978000000001

    TS10
    N: 25.02477, S: 25.02477, E: -80.68097, W: -80.68097

    TS11
    N: 24.91293, S: 24.91293, E: -80.93798000000001, W: -80.93798000000001

  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Data from long term DOM study in Taylor and Shark Sloughs
      Attribute Name:
      Site
      Attribute Label:
      Site
      Attribute Definition:
      Location of sample collection
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      SRS1d= Shark River Slough 1d
      SRS2= Shark River Slough 2
      SRS3= Shark River Slough 3
      SRS4= Shark River Slough 4
      SRS5= Shark River Slough 5
      SRS6= Shark River Slough 6
      TS10= Taylor Slough 10
      TS11= Taylor Slough 11
      TS1a= Taylor Slough 1a
      TS2= Taylor Slough 2
      TS3= Taylor Slough 3
      TS6a= Taylor Slough 6a
      TS7a= Taylor Slough 6b
      TS9= Taylor Slough 9
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Month
      Attribute Label:
      Month
      Attribute Definition:
      Month of year when samples were collected
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: integer
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Year
      Attribute Label:
      Year
      Attribute Definition:
      Year samples were collected
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: integer
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Date
      Attribute Label:
      Date
      Attribute Definition:
      Numerical month and year when samples were collected
      Storage Type:
      dateTime
      Measurement Scale:
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Sample_Name
      Attribute Label:
      Sample Name
      Attribute Definition:
      Sample location and date of collection
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      Sample location and date of collection
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Sample_ID
      Attribute Label:
      Sample ID
      Attribute Definition:
      Sample location and date of collection for completed samples
      Storage Type:
      string
      Measurement Scale:
      Sample location and date of collection for completed samples
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      dilution_factor
      Attribute Label:
      dilution factor
      Attribute Definition:
      Amount of dilution (using MilliQ water) of original sample
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      FI_(FI370)
      Attribute Label:
      FI (FI370)
      Attribute Definition:
      Fluorescence Index at excitation 370 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      BIX_(FI310)
      Attribute Label:
      BIX (FI310)
      Attribute Definition:
      Biological Index at excitation 310 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      HIX_(FI254)
      Attribute Label:
      HIX (FI254)
      Attribute Definition:
      Humification Index at excitation 254 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Abs254
      Attribute Label:
      Abs254
      Attribute Definition:
      Absorbance at 254 nm at 1 cm path length (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      DOC_umol_L
      Attribute Label:
      DOC_umol_L
      Attribute Definition:
      Dissolved organic carbon concentration
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: micromolsPerLiter
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      DOC_mg_L
      Attribute Label:
      DOC_mg_L
      Attribute Definition:
      Dissolved organic carbon concentration
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: milligramsPerLiter
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      SUVA254
      Attribute Label:
      SUVA254
      Attribute Definition:
      Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm with 1 cm path length (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      slp274_295
      Attribute Label:
      slp274_295
      Attribute Definition:
      Slope of excitation from 274 to 295 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      slp350_400
      Attribute Label:
      slp350_400
      Attribute Definition:
      Slope of excitation from 350 to 400 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      SR
      Attribute Label:
      SR
      Attribute Definition:
      Slope ratio (division of slope of 275 to 295 nm by slope of 350 to 400 nm), unitless
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      ES_E3
      Attribute Label:
      ES_E3
      Attribute Definition:
      Ratio of the absorbance from 250 to 365 nm (unitless)
      Storage Type:
      float
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: unitless
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
       


  • Methods
    Method Step

    Description
    Sampling Description
    Water samples were collected monthly during February 2012 to December 2020 from a total of 14 sampling stations located in the coastal estuaries of the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula, USA. These stations were established for an on-going water quality monitoring program (http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork). Sampling stations can be largely grouped into 3 distinct districts based on the geomorphological features, that is, Florida Bay (FB, 3 sampling stations), Shark River Slough (SRS, 6 sampling stations), and Taylor Slough (TSPH, 8 sampling stations). Surface water samples were taken from the these stations. The samples were collected using pre-washed, brown Nalgen polyethylene bottles (Nalge Nunc International). Salinity of the water samples was measured in the field using an Orion salinity meter. The samples were stored on ice and returned to the laboratory within 8 h for analysis. Subsamples for spectroscopic analysis were filtered through precombusted Whatman GF/F glass fiber filters once received in the laboratory and analyzed immediately.

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Aqualog-2 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). The humification index (HIX) was quantified as the area under the emission curve between 435-480 nm divided by the area under the emission curve between 300-345 nm, for excitation at 254 nm (Zsolnay et al. 1999). The biological index (BIX), an indicator of the relative contribution of new autochthonous production to the DOM pool, was calculated as the emission at 380 nm divided by the emission at 430 nm, for excitation at 310 nm (Huguet et al. 2009). The slope ratio (SR), a measure of the average molecular weight, was calculated as the best-fir slope of the natural-log of abosorbance from 275 to 295 nm divided by the best-fit slope of the natural-log of absorbance from 350 to 400 nm (Helms et al. 2008). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Quality Control:
    Fluorescence measurements are corrected for internal absorbance quenching. Fluorescence spectra are corrected for internal instrument configuration using excitation and emission correction factors. For DOC, Humic carbon and carbohydrate data, we create calibration curves with standards and then graph the data.

    ==================== Data Sources =========================
    Battin, T J 1998. Dissolved organic matter and its optical properties in a blackwater tributary of the upper Orinoco river, Venezuela. Organic Geochemistry, 28: 561-569.

    Chen, Meilian L. 2010. Comparative study of dissolved organic matter from groundwater and surface water in the Florida costal Everglades using multi-dimensional spectrofluorometry combined with multivariate statistics. Applied Geochemistry, 25: 872-880.

    De Souza Sierra, M M 1997. Spectral identification and behavior of dissolved organic fluorescence material during estuarine mixing processes. Marine Chemistry, 58: 51-58.

    Donard, O F 1989. High-sensitivity fluorescence spectroscopy of Mediterranean waters using a conventional or a pulsed laser excitation source. Marine Chemistry, 27: 117-136.

    Helms, John R. 2008. Absorption spectral slopes and slope ratios as indicators of molecular weight, source, and photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Limnology and Oceanography, 53(3): 955-969.

    Huguet, A., Vacher, L., Relexans, S., Saubusse, S., Froidefond, J.M. and Parlanti, E., 2009. Properties of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Gironde Estuary. Organic Geochemistry, 40(6):706-719.

    Lu, X Q 2003. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Water Research, 37: 2599-2606.

    McKnight, Diane M 2001. Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity. Limnology and Oceanography, 46: 38-48.

    Stedmon, Colin A. 2003. Tracing dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments using a new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy . Marine Chemistry, 82: 239-254.

    Weishaar, James L. 2003. Evaluation of Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance as an Indicator of the Chemical Composition and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Carbon . Environmental Science and Technology, 37: 4702-4708.

    Yamashita, Youhei 2010. Dissolved organic matter characteristics across a subtropical wetland's landscape: Application of optical properties in the assessment of environmental dynamics. Ecosystems, 13: 1006-1019.

    Zsolnay, A., Baigar, E., Jimenez, M., Steinweg, B. and Saccomandi, F., 1999. Differentiating with fluorescence spectroscopy the sources of dissolved organic matter in soils subjected to drying. Chemosphere, 38(1): 45-50.
    ===========================================================

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filters, Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer, Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Aqualog-2 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

  • Intellectual Rights
    Intellectual Rights
    This information is released under the Creative Commons license - Attribution - CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The consumer of these data ("Data User" herein) is required to cite it appropriately in any publication that results from its use. The Data User should realize that these data may be actively used by others for ongoing research and that coordination may be necessary to prevent duplicate publication. The Data User is urged to contact the authors of these data if any questions about methodology or results occur. Where appropriate, the Data User is encouraged to consider collaboration or co-authorship with the authors. The Data User should realize that misinterpretation of data may occur if used out of context of the original study. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and associated documentation, complete accuracy of data sets cannot be guaranteed. All data are made available "as is." The Data User should be aware, however, that data are updated periodically and it is the responsibility of the Data User to check for new versions of the data. The data authors and the repository where these data were obtained shall not be liable for damages resulting from any use or misinterpretation of the data. Thank you.

  • Keywords
    disturbance, biogeochemistry, nutrients, sulfate, emissions, FCE, Florida Coastal Everglades LTER, ecological research, long-term monitoring, Everglades National Park, Dissolved organic matter, Taylor Slough, Shark River Slough, Fluorescence Index, Humification Index, Biological Index, Absorbance, Specific UV Absorbance, Fluorescence, Water, Dissolved organic carbon, estuaries, FCE LTER
  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Data from long term DOM study in Taylor and Shark Sloughs

    Entity Name:
    FCE1234
    Entity Description:
    Data from long term DOM study in Taylor and Shark Sloughs
    Object Name:
    FCE1234.csv
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    772