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Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park (FCE) for October 2004 to February 2014


At a Glance


Authors: Rudolf Jaffe
Time period: 2004-10-01 to 2014-02-01
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1174.7
Dataset id: LT_ND_Jaffe_004

How to cite:
Jaffe, R.. 2018. Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park (FCE) for October 2004 to February 2014. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/3938d3bb664d57584afc749c6a768f31. Dataset accessed 2020-02-28.

Geographic Coverage


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Detailed Metadata


  • Dataset Abstract
    Dissolved organic matter plays an important role in biogeochemical processes in aquatic environments such as elemental cycling, microbial loop energetics, and the transport of materials across landscapes. Since most of N (> 90%) and P (around 90%) is in the organic form in the oligotrophic subtropical Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE), study of the source and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ecosystem is crucial for the better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. FCE are composed of estuaries with distinct regions with different biogeochemical processes. Freshwater marsh primarily receives terrestrial input and local autochthonous vegetation production. Mangrove ecotone, nevertheless, is affected by the tidal contributions from Florida Bay and local mangrove production. Florida Bay (FB) is a wedge-shaped shallow oligotrophic estuary which lays south of the Everglades, the bottom of which is covered with a dense biomass of seagrass. The sources of both freshwater and nutrients in FCE are difficult to quantify, owing to the non-point source nature of runoff from the Everglades and the dendritic cross channels in the mangroves. Furthermore, the combination of multiple DOM sources (freshwater marsh vegetation, mangroves, phytoplankton, seagrass, etc.), and the potential seasonal variability of their relative contribution, along with the history of (photo)chemical and microbial diagenetic processing, and complex advective circulation, makes the study of DOM dynamics in FCE particularly difficult using standard schemes of estuarine ecology. Quantitative information of DOM is very useful to investigate the biogeochemical cycling of DOM to a certain degree, however, qualitative information is necessary to better understand the source and dynamics of DOM. Since fluorescence spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive, quick and simple, they have been applied to investigate the fate of DOM in estuaries.
  • Geographic Coverage
    Study Extent Description
    The Study Extent of this dataset includes the Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough and Florida Bay of FCE research sites within Everglades National Park, South Florida

    Bounding Coordinates
    Samples were collected in FCE-LTER stations
    N: 25.761, S: 24.913, E: -80.490, W: -81.078

    Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Study Area: South Florida, Everglades National Park, and Florida Bay
    N: 25.761, S: 24.913, E: -80.490, W: -81.078

    FCE LTER Sites
    SRS2, SRS3, SRS4,SRS6, TS/Ph2, TS/Ph3, TS/Ph4, TS/Ph7a

    All Sites
    Geographic Description
    Bounding Coordinates
    FCE LTER Site SRS2
    N: 25.550, S: 25.550, E: -80.785, W: -80.785
    FCE LTER Site SRS3
    N: 25.468, S: 25.468, E: -80.853, W: -80.853
    FCE LTER Site SRS4
    N: 25.410, S: 25.410, E: -80.964, W: -80.964
    FCE LTER Site SRS6
    N: 25.365, S: 25.365, E: -81.078, W: -81.078
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph2
    N: 25.40, S: 25.40, E: -80.61, W: -80.61
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph3
    N: 25.25, S: 25.25, E: -80.66, W: -80.66
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph4
    N: 25.32, S: 25.32, E: -80.52, W: -80.52
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph7a
    N: 25.19, S: 25.19, E: -80.64, W: -80.64
  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park (FCE)
      Attribute Name:
      Sample_Name
      Attribute Label:
      sample name
      Attribute Definition:
      Sample ID
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Sample ID
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      SITENAME
      Attribute Label:
      sitename
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of LTER site
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of LTER site
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Date
      Attribute Label:
      date
      Attribute Definition:
      Collection date
      Storage Type:
      datetime
      Measurement Scale:
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      FI
      Attribute Label:
      Fluorescence Index
      Attribute Definition:
      Ratio of emission intensities at 450 and 500 nm obtained at a fixed
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      A_254
      Attribute Label:
      Absorbance
      Attribute Definition:
      UV-Vis absorbance at 254 nm; note that 1 cm pathlength used
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.001
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.000 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      DOC
      Attribute Label:
      Dissolved Organic Carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Dissolved Organic Carbon
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: milligramsPerLiter
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      SUVA254
      Attribute Label:
      Specific UV absorbance
      Attribute Definition:
      UV absorbance at 254 nm normalized for DOC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: litersPerMeterMilligram
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Abs_Naperian
      Attribute Label:
      Naperian Absorbance
      Attribute Definition:
      Naperian UV-Vis absorbance at 254 nm
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.001
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.000 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      SUVA_Naperian
      Attribute Label:
      Naperian Specific UV absorbance
      Attribute Definition:
      Naperian UV absorbance at 254 nm normalized for DOC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: litersPerMeterMilligram
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C1
      Attribute Label:
      C1
      Attribute Definition:
      component 1 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C2
      Attribute Label:
      C2
      Attribute Definition:
      component 2 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C3
      Attribute Label:
      C3
      Attribute Definition:
      component 3 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C4
      Attribute Label:
      C4
      Attribute Definition:
      component 4 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C5
      Attribute Label:
      C5
      Attribute Definition:
      component 5 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C6
      Attribute Label:
      C6
      Attribute Definition:
      component 6 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C7
      Attribute Label:
      C7
      Attribute Definition:
      component 7 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      C8
      Attribute Label:
      C8
      Attribute Definition:
      component 8 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      SUM
      Attribute Label:
      Sum of the loadings for all 8 PARAFAC components (AKA total modeled fluorescence intensity)
      Attribute Definition:
      Sum of the loadings for all 8 PARAFAC components (AKA total modeled fluorescence intensity)
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C1
      Attribute Label:
      %C1
      Attribute Definition:
      component 1 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C2
      Attribute Label:
      %C2
      Attribute Definition:
      component 2 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C3
      Attribute Label:
      %C3
      Attribute Definition:
      component 3 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C4
      Attribute Label:
      %C4
      Attribute Definition:
      component 4 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C5
      Attribute Label:
      %C5
      Attribute Definition:
      component 5 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C6
      Attribute Label:
      %C6
      Attribute Definition:
      component 6 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C7
      Attribute Label:
      %C7
      Attribute Definition:
      component 7 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %C8
      Attribute Label:
      %C8
      Attribute Definition:
      component 8 of EEM-PARAFAC
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )


  • Methods
    Sampling Description
    Water samples were collected monthly during October 2004 to September 2008 from a total of 17 sampling stations located in the coastal estuaries of the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula, USA. These stations were established for an on-going water quality monitoring program (http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork). Sampling stations can be largely grouped into 3 distinct districts based on the geomorphological features, that is, Florida Bay (FB, 3 sampling stations), Shark River Slough (SRS, 6 sampling stations), and Taylor Slough (TSPH, 8 sampling stations). Surface water samples were taken from the these stations. The samples were collected using pre-washed, brown Nalgen polyethylene bottles (Nalge Nunc International). Salinity of the water samples was measured in the field using an Orion salinity meter. The samples were stored on ice and returned to the laboratory within 8 h for analysis. Subsamples for spectroscopic analysis were filtered through precombusted Whatman GF/F glass fiber filters once received in the laboratory and analyzed immediately.

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Battin, T J 1998. Dissolved organic matter and its optical properties in a blackwater tributary of the upper Orinoco river, Venezuela. Organic Geochemistry, 28: 561-569.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    De Souza Sierra, M M 1997. Spectral identification and behavior of dissolved organic fluorescence material during estuarine mixing processes. Marine Chemistry, 58: 51-58.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Donard, O F 1989. High-sensitivity fluorescence spectroscopy of Mediterranean waters using a conventional or a pulsed laser excitation source. Marine Chemistry, 27: 117-136.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Lu, X Q 2003. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Water Research, 37: 2599-2606.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    McKnight, Diane M 2001. Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity. Limnology and Oceanography, 46: 38-48.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Helms, John R. 2008. Absorption spectral slopes and slope ratios as indicators of molecular weight, source, and photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Limnology and Oceanography, 53(3): 955-969.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Weishaar, James L. 2003. Evaluation of Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance as an Indicator of the Chemical Composition and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Carbon . Environmental Science and Technology, 37: 4702-4708.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Stedmon, Colin A. 2003. Tracing dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments using a new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy . Marine Chemistry, 82: 239-254.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Chen, Meilian L. 2010. Comparative study of dissolved organic matter from groundwater and surface water in the Florida costal Everglades using multi-dimensional spectrofluorometry combined with multivariate statistics. Applied Geochemistry, 25: 872-880.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer. In advance the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl, and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standar methods as part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. For escitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, fluorescences spectra were measured with a Jobin-Yvon-Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer equipped with a 150-W continuous output xenon arc lamp under condition of 5.7-nm excitation and 2-nm emission slit widths and a 0.25 second response time. Forty-four emission scans were acquired at excitation wavelengths (lamda ex) between 240 and 455 nm at 5 nm intervals. Them emission wavelengths were scanned from lamda ex + 10 nm to lamda ex + 250 nm at 2 nm intervals (Coble et al., 1993 and Coble, 1996). All fluorescence spectra were acquired in ratio mode, whereby the sample (emission signal, S) and reference (excitation lamp output, R) signals were collected and the ratio (S/R) was calculated. The ratio mode eliminates the influence of possible fluctuation and wavelength dependency of excitation lamp output. Several post-acquisition steps were involved in the correction of the fluorescence spectra. First, an inner filter corrections was applied to the fluorescence data according to McKnight et al. (2001). After inner filter corrections the sample EEM underwent spectral subtraction of the Milli-Q water to remove most of the effects due to Raman scattering. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical components (gratings, mirrors, etc.) were then corrected by applying multiplication factors, supplied by the manufacturer, for both excitation and emission wavelengths for the range of observations. Finally, the fluorescence intensity values were converted to quinine sulfate unit (QSU;1QSU=1 ngL-1 of quinine sulfate monohydroxide) to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons (Coble et al., 1993). From the 370 nm scan a fluorescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Milli-Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. UV-visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1cm quartz UV-visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Varian CARY 50 Bio UV-visible spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference.

    Citation
    Yamashita, Youhei 2010. Dissolved organic matter characteristics across a subtropical wetland's landscape: Application of optical properties in the assessment of environmental dynamics. Ecosystems, 13: 1006-1019.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filers,Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer,Jobin Yvon Horiba (France) Spex Fluoromax-3 fluorometer, Varian CARY 50 Bio UV visible spectrophotometer

    Quality Control
    Fluorescence measurements are corrected for internal absorbance quenching. Fluorescence spectra are corrected for internal instrument configuration using excitation and emission correction factors. For DOC, Humic carbon and carbohydrate data, we create calibration curves with standards and then graph the data.
  • Distribution and Intellectual Rights
    Online distribution
    http://fcelter.fiu.edu/perl/public_data_download.pl?datasetid=LT_ND_Jaffe_004.txt
    Data Submission Date:  2015-07-29

    Intellectual Rights
    These data are classified as 'Type II' whereby original FCE LTER experimental data collected by individual FCE researchers to be released to restricted audiences according to terms specified by the owners of the data. Type II data are considered to be exceptional and should be rare in occurrence. The justification for exceptions must be well documented and approved by the lead PI and Site Data Manager. Some examples of Type II data restrictions may include: locations of rare or endangered species, data that are covered under prior licensing or copyright (e.g., SPOT satellite data), or covered by the Human Subjects Act, Student Dissertation data and those data related to the FCE LTER Program but not funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under LTER grants #DEB-9910514, and # DBI-0620409. Researchers that make use of Type II Data may be subject to additional restrictions to protect any applicable commercial or confidentiality interests. All publications based on this dataset must cite the data Contributor, the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program and that this material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation through the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research program under Cooperative Agreements #DEB-1237517, #DBI-0620409, and #DEB-9910514. Additionally, two copies of the manuscript must be submitted to the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program Office, LTER Program Manager, Florida International University, Southeast Environmental Research Center, OE 148, University Park, Miami, Florida 33199. For a complete description of the FCE LTER Data Access Policy and Data User Agreement, please go to FCE Data Management Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/DataMgmt.pdf and LTER Network Data Access Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/core/data_user_agreement/distribution_policy.html.

  • Keywords
    FCE, Florida Coastal Everglades LTER, ecological research, long-term monitoring, Everglades National Park, Dissolved organic matter, Taylor Slough, Shark River Slough, Fluorescence Index, Absorbance, Specific UV absorbance, fluorescence, water, total organic carbon, estuarine, sulfate, emissions
  • Dataset Contact
    • Name: Rudolf Jaffe 
    • Position: Project Collaborator
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, Florida 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-2456
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: jaffer@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://serc.fiu.edu/sercindex/index.htm

    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, FL 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-6054
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: fcelter@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://fcelter.fiu.edu

  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park (FCE)

    Entity Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_004
    Entity Description:
    Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Shark River Slough and Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park (FCE)
    Object Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_004
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    697