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Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, and Whitewater Bay, in southwest coast of Everglades National Park (FCE) for February 2001 to December 2002


At a Glance


Authors: Rudolf Jaffe
Time period: 2001-02-20 to 2002-12-17
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1101.3
Dataset id: LT_ND_Jaffe_003

How to cite:
Jaffe, R.. 2005. Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, and Whitewater Bay, in southwest coast of Everglades National Park (FCE) for February 2001 to December 2002. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/1bb7981116c89e6f414964b0a113b294. Dataset accessed 2020-10-26.

Geographic Coverage


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Detailed Metadata


  • Dataset Abstract
    Dissolved organic matter plays an important role in biogeochemical processes in aquatic environments such as elemental cycling, microbial loop energetics, and the transport of materials across landscapes. Since most of N (Greater than 90%) and P (around 90%) is in the organic form in the oligotrophic subtropical Florida Coastal Estuaries (FCES), study of the source and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ecosystem is crucial for the better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. FCES are composed of estuaries with distinct regions with different biogeochemical processes. Florida Bay (FB) is a wedge-shaped shallow oligotrophic estuary which lays south of the Everglades, the bottom of which is covered with a dense biomass of seagrass. Whitewater bay (WWB) is a semi-enclosed mangrove estuary with a relatively long residence time, which receives overland freshwater input from the Everglades marshes. Ten thousand Islands (TTI) covers the southwest margin of the Florida Coastal Everglades, which are highly compartmentalized by local geomorphology. The sources of both freshwater and nutrients in FCES are difficult to quantify, owing to the non-point source nature of runoff from the Everglades and the dendritic cross channels in the mangroves. Furthermore, the combination of multiple DOM sources (freshwater marsh vegetation, mangroves, phytoplankton, seagrass, etc.), and the potential seasonal variability of their relative contribution, along with the history of (photo)chemical and microbial diagenetic processing, and complex advective circulation, makes the study of DOM dynamics in FCES particularly difficult using standard schemes of estuarine ecology. Quantitative information of DOM is very useful to investigate the biogeochemical cycling of DOM to a certain degree, however, qualitative information is necessary to better understand the source and dynamics of DOM. Since fluorescence spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive, quick and simple, they have been applied to investigate the fate of DOM in estuaries.
  • Geographic Coverage
    Study Extent Description
    The Study Extent of this dataset includes the southwest FCE and Florida Bay research sites within Everglades National Park, South Florida

    Bounding Coordinates
    Samples were collected in Florida Bay, Whitewater Bay, and Ten Thousand Islands, within Everglades National Park, South Florida.
    N: 25.761, S: 24.913, E: -80.490, W: -81.078

    Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Study Area: South Florida, Everglades National Park, and Florida Bay
    N: 25.761, S: 24.913, E: -80.490, W: -81.078

    FCE LTER Sites
    SRS4,SRS5,TS/Ph9 and TS/Ph11

    All Sites
    Geographic Description
    Bounding Coordinates
    Card Sound Bridge
    N: 25.274, S: 25.274, E: -80.375, W: -80.375
    Middle Bay
    N: 25.285, S: 25.285, E: -80.395, W: -80.395
    Manatee Bay
    N: 25.251, S: 25.251, E: -80.415, W: -80.415
    Barnes Sound
    N: 25.222, S: 25.222, E: -80.388, W: -80.388
    Blackwater Sound
    N: 25.174, S: 25.174, E: -80.423, W: -80.423
    L. Blackwater Sound
    N: 25.207, S: 25.207, E: -80.440, W: -80.440
    Highway Creek
    N: 25.254, S: 25.254, E: -80.444, W: -80.444
    Long Sound
    N: 25.227, S: 25.227, E: -80.462, W: -80.462
    Duck Key
    N: 25.177, S: 25.177, E: -80.492, W: -80.492
    Joe Bay
    N: 25.224, S: 25.224, E: -80.537, W: -80.537
    L. Madeira Bay
    N: 25.175, S: 25.175, E: -80.627, W: -80.627
    Terrapin Bay
    N: 25.140, S: 25.140, E: -80.716, W: -80.716
    Whipray Basin
    N: 25.091, S: 25.091, E: -80.755, W: -80.755
    Garfield Bight
    N: 25.150, S: 25.150, E: -80.809, W: -80.809
    Rankin Lake
    N: 25.121, S: 25.121, E: -80.803, W: -80.803
    Murray Key
    N: 25.118, S: 25.118, E: -80.940, W: -80.940
    Johnson Key Basin
    N: 25.042, S: 25.042, E: -80.915, W: -80.915
    Rabbit Key Basin
    N: 25.002, S: 25.002, E: -80.900, W: -80.900
    Twin Key Basin
    N: 24.978, S: 24.978, E: -80.954, W: -80.954
    Peterson Key
    N: 24.930, S: 24.930, E: -80.750, W: -80.750
    Porpoise Lake
    N: 25.007, S: 25.007, E: -80.681, W: -80.681
    Captain's Key
    N: 25.040, S: 25.040, E: -80.614, W: -80.614
    Park Key
    N: 25.118, S: 25.118, E: -80.600, W: -80.600
    Butternut Key
    N: 25.102, S: 25.102, E: -80.531, W: -80.531
    East Cape
    N: 25.084, S: 25.084, E: -81.081, W: -81.081
    Oxfoot Bank
    N: 24.981, S: 24.981, E: -81.002, W: -81.002
    Sprigger Bank
    N: 24.919, S: 24.919, E: -80.935, W: -80.935
    Old Dan Bank
    N: 24.867, S: 24.867, E: -80.807, W: -80.807
    First Bay
    N: 25.555, S: 25.555, E: -81.184, W: -81.184
    Third Bay
    N: 25.580, S: 25.580, E: -81.121, W: -81.121
    Big Lostman's Bay
    N: 25.568, S: 25.568, E: -81.071, W: -81.071
    Cabbage Island
    N: 25.529, S: 25.529, E: -81.043, W: -81.043
    Broad River Bay
    N: 25.500, S: 25.500, E: -81.049, W: -81.049
    Middle Broad River
    N: 25.486, S: 25.486, E: -81.111, W: -81.111
    Mouth Broad River
    N: 25.475, S: 25.475, E: -81.153, W: -81.153
    S.Mouth Harney River
    N: 25.412, S: 25.412, E: -81.141, W: -81.141
    Harney River Junction
    N: 25.432, S: 25.432, E: -81.082, W: -81.082
    Tarpon Bay
    N: 25.417, S: 25.417, E: -80.998, W: -80.998
    Gunboat Island
    N: 25.379, S: 25.379, E: -81.031, W: -81.031
    Ponce de Leon Bay
    N: 25.350, S: 25.350, E: -81.125, W: -81.125
    Oyster Bay
    N: 25.331, S: 25.331, E: -81.073, W: -81.073
    N.of Marker 36
    N: 25.326, S: 25.326, E: -81.015, W: -81.015
    W.of Marker 34
    N: 25.286, S: 25.286, E: -81.024, W: -81.024
    Watson R.Chickee
    N: 25.332, S: 25.332, E: -80.984, W: -80.984
    Mouth North River
    N: 25.301, S: 25.301, E: -80.960, W: -80.960
    Midway Keys
    N: 25.285, S: 25.285, E: -80.976, W: -80.976
    Mouth of Roberts R.
    N: 25.280, S: 25.280, E: -80.931, W: -80.931
    W.of Marker 18
    N: 25.241, S: 25.241, E: -80.958, W: -80.958
    SE of Marker 12
    N: 25.228, S: 25.228, E: -80.933, W: -80.933
    Coot Bay
    N: 25.191, S: 25.191, E: -80.914, W: -80.914
    Chokoloskee
    N: 25.808, S: 25.808, E: -81.350, W: -81.350
    Rabbit Key Pass
    N: 25.770, S: 25.770, E: -81.383, W: -81.383
    Lopez Bay
    N: 25.784, S: 25.784, E: -81.332, W: -81.332
    Lopez River
    N: 25.785, S: 25.785, E: -81.309, W: -81.309
    Sunday Bay
    N: 25.796, S: 25.796, E: -81.280, W: -81.280
    Huston Bay
    N: 25.753, S: 25.753, E: -81.255, W: -81.255
    Upper Chatham R.
    N: 25.718, S: 25.718, E: -81.231, W: -81.231
    Middle Chatham R.
    N: 25.708, S: 25.708, E: -81.252, W: -81.252
    Gun Rock Pt.
    N: 25.692, S: 25.692, E: -81.299, W: -81.299
    Oyster Bay
    N: 25.731, S: 25.731, E: -81.285, W: -81.285
    Chevelier Bay
    N: 25.712, S: 25.712, E: -81.207, W: -81.207
    Alligator Bay
    N: 25.670, S: 25.670, E: -81.169, W: -81.169
    Lostman's Five Bay
    N: 25.633, S: 25.633, E: -81.145, W: -81.145
    Barron River
    N: 25.853, S: 25.853, E: -81.393, W: -81.393
    Indian Key Pass
    N: 25.827, S: 25.827, E: -81.441, W: -81.441
    Indian Key
    N: 25.805, S: 25.805, E: -81.463, W: -81.463
    West Pass
    N: 25.830, S: 25.830, E: -81.503, W: -81.503
    Panther Key
    N: 25.849, S: 25.849, E: -81.542, W: -81.542
    Faka Union Pass
    N: 25.874, S: 25.874, E: -81.516, W: -81.516
    Faka Union River
    N: 25.900, S: 25.900, E: -81.516, W: -81.516
    White Horse Key
    N: 25.867, S: 25.867, E: -81.575, W: -81.575
    Dismal Key
    N: 25.894, S: 25.894, E: -81.559, W: -81.559
    Gullivan Bay
    N: 25.882, S: 25.882, E: -81.606, W: -81.606
    Shell Key
    N: 25.911, S: 25.911, E: -81.615, W: -81.615
    Blackwater River
    N: 25.930, S: 25.930, E: -81.600, W: -81.600
  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, and Whitewater Bay, in southwest coast of Everglades National Park for February 2001-December 2002.
      Attribute Name:
      SITENAME
      Attribute Label:
      sitename
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of LTER site
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of LTER site
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Date
      Attribute Label:
      date
      Attribute Definition:
      Collection date
      Storage Type:
      datetime
      Measurement Scale:
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Max_WL
      Attribute Label:
      Maximum Wavelength
      Attribute Definition:
      Emission wavelength that gives maximum emission intensity at a fixed excitation wavelength of 313nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: nanometer
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Max_I
      Attribute Label:
      Maximum Intensity
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum emission intensity at a fixed excitation wavelength of 313nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 0.1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.0 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      FI
      Attribute Label:
      Fluorescence Index
      Attribute Definition:
      Ratio of emission intensities at 450 and 500 nm obtained at a fixed excitation of 370 nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.001
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.000 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %Peak_1
      Attribute Label:
      Percent Peak 1
      Attribute Definition:
      Percentage of the maximum emission intensity of the first peak of the sychronous scan.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )


  • Methods
    Sampling Description
    Water samples were collected monthly during February 2001 to December 2002 from a total of 73 sampling stations located in the coastal estuaries of the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula, USA. These stations were established for an on-going water quality monitoring program (http://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork). Sampling stations can be largely grouped into 3 distinct districts based on the geomorphological features, that is, Florida Bay (FB, 27 sampling stations), Ten Thousands Islands (TTI, 39 sampling stations), and Whitewater Bay (WWB, 8 sampling stations). Surface water samples were taken from the southwest coast of Florida. The samples were collected using pre-washed, brown Nalgen polyethylene bottles (Nalge Nunc International). Salinity of the water samples was measured in the field using an Orion salinity meter. The samples were stored on ice and returned to the laboratory within 8 h for analysis. Subsamples for spectroscopic analysis were filtered through precombusted Whatman GF/F glass fiber filters once received in the laboratory and analyzed immediately.

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC_5000A TOC analyzer. In advance to the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standard methods as a part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program htt://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded at room temperature (20 degrees C) using a Perkin Elmer LS50B spectrofluorometer equipped with a 150-W Xenon arc lamp as the light source. Two fluorescence indices were obtained by single emission scan measurements at excitation wavelengths of 313 nm and 370 nm. For each scan, fluorescence intensity was measured at emission wavelengths ranging from 330 to 550 nm and from 385 to 550 nm, respectively with a 10nm bandpass for excitation and emission wavelengths. From the 313 nm scan the maximum intensity and maximum wavelength were determined (Donard, et al.,1989; De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). From the 370 nm scan a flurescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Scan speed was set at 400 nm/min. Milli_Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. Total maximum fluorescence intensity (Max I) and the fluorescence index, (FI) were determined at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm (Battin, 1998; McKnight et al., 2001). The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (Max WL) was determined using an excitation wavelength of 313 nm (De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). In order to facilitate comparisons with other studies, the Max I was expressed in quinine sulfate units (QSU; 1 ng L-1 of quinine sulface monohydroxide). Synchronous excitation emission flurescence spectra of the water samples were obtained at constant offset value between excitation and emission wavelengths (delta lamda = lamda em - lamda ex). All spectra were recorded at an offset value of 30 nm with a slit width of 10 nm (Lu and Jaffe, 2001; Lu et al., 2003). The intensities of the four main peaks in the spectrum, namely at 275-286 nm (Peak I), 350nm (Peak II), 385 nm (Peak III) and 460 nm (Peak IV) were determined and the relative intensity of Peak I within this group was reported as %PeakI. All the fluorescence spectra were corrected for inner-filter effect according to McKnight et al. (2001) using UV-Vis absorption spectra. UV visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1 cm quartz UV visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Shimadzu UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical component was not corrected in this experiment, therefore, comparison of optical variables with other researcher's data was not conducted, instead limited the use to invesitgate our data set.

    Citation
    Battin, T J 1998. Dissolved organic matter and its optical properties in a blackwater tributary of the upper Orinoco river, Venezuela. Organic Geochemistry, 28: 561-569.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filersShimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer Perkin Elmer LS50B Spectrofluorometer Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC_5000A TOC analyzer. In advance to the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standard methods as a part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program htt://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded at room temperature (20 degrees C) using a Perkin Elmer LS50B spectrofluorometer equipped with a 150-W Xenon arc lamp as the light source. Two fluorescence indices were obtained by single emission scan measurements at excitation wavelengths of 313 nm and 370 nm. For each scan, fluorescence intensity was measured at emission wavelengths ranging from 330 to 550 nm and from 385 to 550 nm, respectively with a 10nm bandpass for excitation and emission wavelengths. From the 313 nm scan the maximum intensity and maximum wavelength were determined (Donard, et al.,1989; De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). From the 370 nm scan a flurescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Scan speed was set at 400 nm/min. Milli_Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. Total maximum fluorescence intensity (Max I) and the fluorescence index, (FI) were determined at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm (Battin, 1998; McKnight et al., 2001). The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (Max WL) was determined using an excitation wavelength of 313 nm (De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). In order to facilitate comparisons with other studies, the Max I was expressed in quinine sulfate units (QSU; 1 ng L-1 of quinine sulface monohydroxide). Synchronous excitation emission flurescence spectra of the water samples were obtained at constant offset value between excitation and emission wavelengths (delta lamda = lamda em - lamda ex). All spectra were recorded at an offset value of 30 nm with a slit width of 10 nm (Lu and Jaffe, 2001; Lu et al., 2003). The intensities of the four main peaks in the spectrum, namely at 275-286 nm (Peak I), 350nm (Peak II), 385 nm (Peak III) and 460 nm (Peak IV) were determined and the relative intensity of Peak I within this group was reported as %PeakI. All the fluorescence spectra were corrected for inner-filter effect according to McKnight et al. (2001) using UV-Vis absorption spectra. UV visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1 cm quartz UV visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Shimadzu UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical component was not corrected in this experiment, therefore, comparison of optical variables with other researcher's data was not conducted, instead limited the use to invesitgate our data set.

    Citation
    De Souza Sierra, M M 1997. Spectral identification and behavior of dissolved organic fluorescence material during estuarine mixing processes. Marine Chemistry, 58: 51-58.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filersShimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer Perkin Elmer LS50B Spectrofluorometer Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC_5000A TOC analyzer. In advance to the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standard methods as a part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program htt://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded at room temperature (20 degrees C) using a Perkin Elmer LS50B spectrofluorometer equipped with a 150-W Xenon arc lamp as the light source. Two fluorescence indices were obtained by single emission scan measurements at excitation wavelengths of 313 nm and 370 nm. For each scan, fluorescence intensity was measured at emission wavelengths ranging from 330 to 550 nm and from 385 to 550 nm, respectively with a 10nm bandpass for excitation and emission wavelengths. From the 313 nm scan the maximum intensity and maximum wavelength were determined (Donard, et al.,1989; De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). From the 370 nm scan a flurescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Scan speed was set at 400 nm/min. Milli_Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. Total maximum fluorescence intensity (Max I) and the fluorescence index, (FI) were determined at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm (Battin, 1998; McKnight et al., 2001). The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (Max WL) was determined using an excitation wavelength of 313 nm (De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). In order to facilitate comparisons with other studies, the Max I was expressed in quinine sulfate units (QSU; 1 ng L-1 of quinine sulface monohydroxide). Synchronous excitation emission flurescence spectra of the water samples were obtained at constant offset value between excitation and emission wavelengths (delta lamda = lamda em - lamda ex). All spectra were recorded at an offset value of 30 nm with a slit width of 10 nm (Lu and Jaffe, 2001; Lu et al., 2003). The intensities of the four main peaks in the spectrum, namely at 275-286 nm (Peak I), 350nm (Peak II), 385 nm (Peak III) and 460 nm (Peak IV) were determined and the relative intensity of Peak I within this group was reported as %PeakI. All the fluorescence spectra were corrected for inner-filter effect according to McKnight et al. (2001) using UV-Vis absorption spectra. UV visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1 cm quartz UV visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Shimadzu UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical component was not corrected in this experiment, therefore, comparison of optical variables with other researcher's data was not conducted, instead limited the use to invesitgate our data set.

    Citation
    Donard, O F 1989. High-sensitivity fluorescence spectroscopy of Mediterranean waters using a conventional or a pulsed laser excitation source. Marine Chemistry, 27: 117-136.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filersShimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer Perkin Elmer LS50B Spectrofluorometer Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC_5000A TOC analyzer. In advance to the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standard methods as a part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program htt://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded at room temperature (20 degrees C) using a Perkin Elmer LS50B spectrofluorometer equipped with a 150-W Xenon arc lamp as the light source. Two fluorescence indices were obtained by single emission scan measurements at excitation wavelengths of 313 nm and 370 nm. For each scan, fluorescence intensity was measured at emission wavelengths ranging from 330 to 550 nm and from 385 to 550 nm, respectively with a 10nm bandpass for excitation and emission wavelengths. From the 313 nm scan the maximum intensity and maximum wavelength were determined (Donard, et al.,1989; De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). From the 370 nm scan a flurescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Scan speed was set at 400 nm/min. Milli_Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. Total maximum fluorescence intensity (Max I) and the fluorescence index, (FI) were determined at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm (Battin, 1998; McKnight et al., 2001). The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (Max WL) was determined using an excitation wavelength of 313 nm (De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). In order to facilitate comparisons with other studies, the Max I was expressed in quinine sulfate units (QSU; 1 ng L-1 of quinine sulface monohydroxide). Synchronous excitation emission flurescence spectra of the water samples were obtained at constant offset value between excitation and emission wavelengths (delta lamda = lamda em - lamda ex). All spectra were recorded at an offset value of 30 nm with a slit width of 10 nm (Lu and Jaffe, 2001; Lu et al., 2003). The intensities of the four main peaks in the spectrum, namely at 275-286 nm (Peak I), 350nm (Peak II), 385 nm (Peak III) and 460 nm (Peak IV) were determined and the relative intensity of Peak I within this group was reported as %PeakI. All the fluorescence spectra were corrected for inner-filter effect according to McKnight et al. (2001) using UV-Vis absorption spectra. UV visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1 cm quartz UV visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Shimadzu UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical component was not corrected in this experiment, therefore, comparison of optical variables with other researcher's data was not conducted, instead limited the use to invesitgate our data set.

    Citation
    Lu, X Q 2003. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Water Research, 37: 2599-2606.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filersShimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer Perkin Elmer LS50B Spectrofluorometer Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

    Method Step

    Description
    Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were analyzed by a high-temperature combustion method with a Shimadzu TOC_5000A TOC analyzer. In advance to the analysis, samples were acidified with 3M HCl and purged with N2 gas to remove inorganic C. Ancillary physical and chemical parameters were measured using standard methods as a part of on-going estuarine water quality monitoring program htt://www.serc.fiu.edu/wqmnetwork. Detailed methods will be found elsewhere. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded at room temperature (20 degrees C) using a Perkin Elmer LS50B spectrofluorometer equipped with a 150-W Xenon arc lamp as the light source. Two fluorescence indices were obtained by single emission scan measurements at excitation wavelengths of 313 nm and 370 nm. For each scan, fluorescence intensity was measured at emission wavelengths ranging from 330 to 550 nm and from 385 to 550 nm, respectively with a 10nm bandpass for excitation and emission wavelengths. From the 313 nm scan the maximum intensity and maximum wavelength were determined (Donard, et al.,1989; De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). From the 370 nm scan a flurescence index (FI) was calculated (McKnight et al., 2001). Scan speed was set at 400 nm/min. Milli_Q water was used as a reference for all fluorescence analysis. Total maximum fluorescence intensity (Max I) and the fluorescence index, (FI) were determined at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm (Battin, 1998; McKnight et al., 2001). The maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (Max WL) was determined using an excitation wavelength of 313 nm (De Souza Sierra et al., 1997). In order to facilitate comparisons with other studies, the Max I was expressed in quinine sulfate units (QSU; 1 ng L-1 of quinine sulface monohydroxide). Synchronous excitation emission flurescence spectra of the water samples were obtained at constant offset value between excitation and emission wavelengths (delta lamda = lamda em - lamda ex). All spectra were recorded at an offset value of 30 nm with a slit width of 10 nm (Lu and Jaffe, 2001; Lu et al., 2003). The intensities of the four main peaks in the spectrum, namely at 275-286 nm (Peak I), 350nm (Peak II), 385 nm (Peak III) and 460 nm (Peak IV) were determined and the relative intensity of Peak I within this group was reported as %PeakI. All the fluorescence spectra were corrected for inner-filter effect according to McKnight et al. (2001) using UV-Vis absorption spectra. UV visible measurements of the water samples were carried out with 1 cm quartz UV visible cells at room temperature (20 degrees C), using a Shimadzu UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer. Milli-Q water was used as the reference. Instrument bias related to wavelength dependent efficiencies of the specific instrument's optical component was not corrected in this experiment, therefore, comparison of optical variables with other researcher's data was not conducted, instead limited the use to invesitgate our data set.

    Citation
    McKnight, Donard M 2001. Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity. Limnology and Oceanography, 46: 38-48.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filersShimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer Perkin Elmer LS50B Spectrofluorometer Shimadzu UV-2101PC UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

    Quality Control
    Statistical analysis. Box plots were plotted using SigmaPlot 2001 software (SPSS Inc.). Graph data as a box representing statistical values. The center horizontal line within the box is the median of the data, the top and bottom of the box are the 25th and 75th percentiles (quartiles), and the ends of the whiskers are the 10th and 90th percentiles. Outliers (Less than 10th and greater than 90th percentiles) were excluded from the graphs to reduce visual compression. Some quantitative and qualitative TOC and DOC variables were grouped into dry (November-May) and wet (June-October) season, and their seasonal and geomophological variations were analyzed by Student's T-test using JMP 5.0.1 software (SAS Institute Inc.).
  • Distribution and Intellectual Rights
    Online distribution
    http://fcelter.fiu.edu/perl/public_data_download.pl?datasetid=LT_ND_Jaffe_003.txt
    Data Submission Date:  2005-09-29

    Intellectual Rights
    These data are classified as 'Type II' whereby original FCE LTER experimental data collected by individual FCE researchers to be released to restricted audiences according to terms specified by the owners of the data. Type II data are considered to be exceptional and should be rare in occurrence. The justification for exceptions must be well documented and approved by the lead PI and Site Data Manager. Some examples of Type II data restrictions may include: locations of rare or endangered species, data that are covered under prior licensing or copyright (e.g., SPOT satellite data), or covered by the Human Subjects Act, Student Dissertation data and those data related to the FCE LTER Program but not funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under LTER grants #DEB-9910514, and # DBI-0620409. Researchers that make use of Type II Data may be subject to additional restrictions to protect any applicable commercial or confidentiality interests. All publications based on this dataset must cite the data Contributor, the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program and that this material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation through the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research program under Cooperative Agreements #DEB-1237517, #DBI-0620409, and #DEB-9910514. Additionally, two copies of the manuscript must be submitted to the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program Office, LTER Program Manager, Florida International University, Southeast Environmental Research Center, OE 148, University Park, Miami, Florida 33199. For a complete description of the FCE LTER Data Access Policy and Data User Agreement, please go to FCE Data Management Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/DataMgmt.pdf and LTER Network Data Access Policy at http://fcelter.fiu.edu/data/core/data_user_agreement/distribution_policy.html.

  • Keywords
    FCE, Florida Coastal Everglades LTER, ecological research, long-term monitoring, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, Whitewater Bay, Dissolved organic matter, Florida Coastal Estuaries (FCES), biogeochemical processes, fluorescence, emissions, organic matter, freshwater, mangroves, estuaries, organisms, water
  • Dataset Contact
    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: LTER Network Office
    • Address: UNM Biology Department, MSC03-2020
      1 University of New Mexico
      Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 USA
    • Phone: 505 277-2535
    • Fax: 505 277-2541
    • Email: tech-support@lternet.edu
    • URL: http://www.lternet.edu

    • Name: Rudolf Jaffe 
    • Position: Project Collaborator
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, Florida 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-2456
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: jaffer@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://serc.fiu.edu/sercindex/index.htm

    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, FL 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-6054
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: fcelter@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://fcelter.fiu.edu

  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, and Whitewater Bay, in southwest coast of Everglades National Park for February 2001-December 2002.

    Entity Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_003
    Entity Description:
    Monthly monitoring fluorescence data for Florida Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, and Whitewater Bay, in southwest coast of Everglades National Park for February 2001-December 2002.
    Object Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_003
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    1725