Skip to Main Content

Monthly monitoring of Fluorescence, UV, Humic and non-Humic Carbon, Carbohydrates, and DOC for Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay, Everglades National Park (FCE LTER) for January 2002 to August 2004


At a Glance


Authors: Rudolf Jaffe
Time period: 2002-01-01 to 2004-08-01
Package id: knb-lter-fce.1099.4
Dataset id: LT_ND_Jaffe_001

How to cite:
Jaffe, R.. 2006. Monthly monitoring of Fluorescence, UV, Humic and non-Humic Carbon, Carbohydrates, and DOC for Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay, Everglades National Park (FCE LTER) for January 2002 to August 2004. Environmental Data Initiative. https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/b244a3eb610cdfb419088f2ebab00d34. Dataset accessed 2020-08-08.

Geographic Coverage


View detailed metadata as:   HTML    Text    XML


Detailed Metadata


  • Dataset Abstract
    A better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the Florida Coastal Everglades is a key issue regarding the restoration of the Everglades, which is expected to change the water quality throughout South Florida. In addition to rain, the main freshwater supply to Florida Bay will be derived from Taylor Slough and the C-111 Basin in the north-east section of the Bay. While it is known that these areas deliver significant amounts of nitrogen to the Bay, a significant portion of this nitrogen is in its dissolved organic form (DON). The sources, environmental fate and bioavailability to microorganisms of this DON are however, not known. Preliminary data suggest that although proteins have been detected in canal samples, labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) components were found to increase in abundance in the freshwater marshes compared to their levels in the adjacent canal waters. Leaching experiments of biomass showed the presence of such labile DOM. However, this DOM was found to be susceptible to both biodegradation and photodecomposition. In this study we will focus on the determination of the molecular characteristics of both DOM and DON and assess the bioavailability of these materials in transects ranging from the C-111 canal and Taylor Slough to the central part of Florida Bay. Relevant water quality and spectroscopic parameters will be monitored at 11 sites on a monthly basis, while six of these sites will be sampled biannually for DOM and DON chemical characterization and bioavailability studies. Advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis-GC/MS, FTIR, 13C- and 15N-NMR, gel electrophoresis and LC/MS will be used in the molecular characterization effort. We envisage that this study will allow for a better assessment of the sources of DON and its bioavailability in this system.
  • Geographic Coverage
    Study Extent Description
    The Study Extent of this dataset includes the FCE Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay research sites within Everglades National Park, South Florida

    Bounding Coordinates
    FCE LTER Site SRS1a
    N: 25.761, S: 25.761, E: -80.727, W: -80.727

    FCE LTER Site SRS2
    N: 25.550, S: 25.550, E: -80.785, W: -80.785

    FCE LTER Site SRS3
    N: 25.468, S: 25.468, E: -80.853, W: -80.853

    FCE LTER Site SRS4
    N: 25.410, S: 25.410, E: -80.964, W: -80.964

    FCE LTER Site SRS5
    N: 25.377, S: 25.377, E: -81.032, W: -81.032

    FCE LTER Site SRS6
    N: 25.365, S: 25.365, E: -81.078, W: -81.078

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph1a
    N: 25.42, S: 25.42, E: -80.59, W: -80.59

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph2
    N: 25.40, S: 25.40, E: -80.61, W: -80.61

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph3
    N: 25.25, S: 25.25, E: -80.66, W: -80.66

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph4
    N: 25.32, S: 25.32, E: -80.52, W: -80.52

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph5
    N: 25.30, S: 25.30, E: -80.52, W: -80.52

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph6a
    N: 25.21, S: 25.21, E: -80.65, W: -80.65

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph7a
    N: 25.19, S: 25.19, E: -80.64, W: -80.64

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph8
    N: 25.23, S: 25.23, E: -80.53, W: -80.53

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph9
    N: 25.18, S: 25.18, E: -80.49, W: -80.49

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph10
    N: 25.02, S: 25.02, E: -80.68, W: -80.68

    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph11
    N: 24.91, S: 24.91, E: -80.94, W: -80.94

    E-1
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.46, W: -80.46

    E-2
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.46, W: -80.46

    S-332
    N: 25.422, S: 25.422, E: -80.590, W: -80.590

    C-111
    N: 25.32, S: 25.32, E: -80.52, W: -80.52

    TC
    N: 25.21, S: 25.21, E: -80.53, W: -80.53

    W-3
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.52, W: -80.52

    FCE LTER Sites
    SRS1a, SRS2, SRS3, SRS4, SRS5, SRS6, TS/Ph1a, TS/Ph2, TS/Ph3, TS/Ph4, TS/Ph5, TS/Ph6a, TS/Ph7a, TS/Ph8, TS/Ph9, TS/Ph10, TS/Ph11, S-332, E-1, E-2, TC, W3, and C-111.

    All Sites
    Geographic Description
    Bounding Coordinates
    FCE LTER Site SRS1a
    N: 25.761, S: 25.761, E: -80.727, W: -80.727
    FCE LTER Site SRS2
    N: 25.550, S: 25.550, E: -80.785, W: -80.785
    FCE LTER Site SRS3
    N: 25.468, S: 25.468, E: -80.853, W: -80.853
    FCE LTER Site SRS4
    N: 25.410, S: 25.410, E: -80.964, W: -80.964
    FCE LTER Site SRS5
    N: 25.377, S: 25.377, E: -81.032, W: -81.032
    FCE LTER Site SRS6
    N: 25.365, S: 25.365, E: -81.078, W: -81.078
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph1a
    N: 25.42, S: 25.42, E: -80.59, W: -80.59
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph2
    N: 25.40, S: 25.40, E: -80.61, W: -80.61
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph3
    N: 25.25, S: 25.25, E: -80.66, W: -80.66
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph4
    N: 25.32, S: 25.32, E: -80.52, W: -80.52
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph5
    N: 25.30, S: 25.30, E: -80.52, W: -80.52
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph6a
    N: 25.21, S: 25.21, E: -80.65, W: -80.65
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph7a
    N: 25.19, S: 25.19, E: -80.64, W: -80.64
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph8
    N: 25.23, S: 25.23, E: -80.53, W: -80.53
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph9
    N: 25.18, S: 25.18, E: -80.49, W: -80.49
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph10
    N: 25.02, S: 25.02, E: -80.68, W: -80.68
    FCE LTER Site TS/Ph11
    N: 24.91, S: 24.91, E: -80.94, W: -80.94
    E-1
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.46, W: -80.46
    E-2
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.46, W: -80.46
    S-332
    N: 25.422, S: 25.422, E: -80.590, W: -80.590
    C-111
    N: 25.32, S: 25.32, E: -80.52, W: -80.52
    TC
    N: 25.21, S: 25.21, E: -80.53, W: -80.53
    W-3
    N: 25.29, S: 25.29, E: -80.52, W: -80.52
  • Attributes
    • Data Table:   Monthly monitoring (Fluorescence, UV, Humic and non-Humic Carbon, Carbohydrates, and DOC) data for Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay, Everglades National Park
      Attribute Name:
      SITENAME
      Attribute Label:
      sitename
      Attribute Definition:
      Name of LTER site
      Storage Type:
      text
      Measurement Scale:
      Name of LTER site
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Date
      Attribute Label:
      date
      Attribute Definition:
      Collection date
      Storage Type:
      datetime
      Measurement Scale:
      Missing Value Code:
       

      Attribute Name:
      Max_WL
      Attribute Label:
      Maximum Wavelength
      Attribute Definition:
      Emission wavelength that gives maximum emission intensity at a fixed excitation wavelength of 313nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: nanometer
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Max_I
      Attribute Label:
      Maximum Intensity
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum emission intensity at a fixed excitation wavelength of 313nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      FI
      Attribute Label:
      Fluorescence Index
      Attribute Definition:
      Ratio of emission intensities at 450 and 500 nm obtained at a fixed excitation of 370 nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.001
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.000 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %285
      Attribute Label:
      %285
      Attribute Definition:
      Obtained with a synchronous fluorescence scan and is used to determine the amount of proteinaceous material present in a water sample.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Peak_1
      Attribute Label:
      Peak 1 maximum intensity
      Attribute Definition:
      Maximum emission intensity of the first peak of the sychronous scan.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: QSU
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      A_254
      Attribute Label:
      Absorbance at 254 nm
      Attribute Definition:
      UV absobance at 254 nm.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: dimensionless
      Precision: 0.001
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.000 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      SUVA254
      Attribute Label:
      SUVA 254
      Attribute Definition:
      Specific UV absorbance. UV absorbance at 254 nm normalized for DOC concentration.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: milligramsPerLiter
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      H_C
      Attribute Label:
      Humic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Humic carbon fraction.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: microgramsPerMilliliter
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      NH_C
      Attribute Label:
      Non-humic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Carbon fraction that is non-humic
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: microgramsPerMilliliter
      Precision: 0.01
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.00 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %H_C
      Attribute Label:
      % Humic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent Humic carbon fraction
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %NH_C
      Attribute Label:
      % Non-humic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Percent non-humic carbon fraction
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      %DOC
      Attribute Label:
      %Dissolved organic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Percentage dissolved organic carbon.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      Carbohydrates
      Attribute Label:
      Carbohydrates
      Attribute Definition:
      Concentration of carbohydrate carbon.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: microMolesPerLiter
      Precision: 1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      % Carb_C
      Attribute Label:
      %Carbohydrate carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Percentage of carbohydrate carbon.
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: percent
      Precision: 0.1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.0 (Value will never be recorded )

      Attribute Name:
      DOC
      Attribute Label:
      Dissolved organic carbon
      Attribute Definition:
      Dissolved organic carbon concentration
      Storage Type:
      data
      Measurement Scale:
      Units: microgramsPerMilliliter
      Precision: 0.1
      Number Type: real
      Missing Value Code:
      -9999.0 (Value will never be recorded )


  • Methods
    Sampling Description
    Water samples are collected monthly from all LTER sites, stored on ice and filtered through combusted GF/F glass fiber filters upon arrival to the lab. Samples are then prepared for optical measurements including Fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopy, humic and non-humic carbon analysis, carbohydrates, and DOC.

    Method Step

    Description
    Surface water samples were collected monthly in 1-L and 30-mL brown high density polyethylene bottles from all LTER sites and stored on ice. The 1-L samples were refrigerated upon receipt and filtered as soon as possible through pre-combusted 0.7um GF/F glass fiber filters and 0.2um Nylon filters, sequentially.After filtration, a 30 mL portion was saved and stored frozen for total carbohydrate analysis. The remaining sample was acidified with 3 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid for subsequent analyses. Optical measurements performed using Fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopy include Maximum Wavelength, Maximum Intensity, Fluorescence Index, Percent 285, Peak 1, and A-254. Maximum Wavelength is the emission wavelength that gives maximum intensity at a fixed excitation of 313nm and is used to differentiate between carbon sources (terrestrial vs. marine/microbial). Since it measures aromaticity and conjugation, a high Maximum wavelength corresponds to material of terrestrial origin while low values correspond to material of marine or microbial origin. Maximum Intensity is the maximum emission intensity obtained at a fixed excitation wavelength of 313 nm. Fluorescnce Index is a ratio of emission intensities at 450 and 500nm measured at a fixed excitation of 370nm and is also used to measure conjugation in molecules.Percent 285 is obtained by performing a synchronous scan to determine the amount of proteins in a water sample. A synchronous scan is obtained by scanning a range of excitation and emission wavelengths with an offset between them (typically 30 nm). This produces four peaks which can be used to characterize organic matter. Peak 1 is also used for the determination of proteins but it is an absolute intensity at 285nm. A-254 is used as a proxy for aromatics and conjugation. SUVA at 254nm is defined as the Specific UV Absorbance and it is obtained by measuring the UV absorbance at 254nm and normalizing it for the DOC concentration. Milli-Q water is used as a blank and subtracted from all samples. Measurements are corrected for lamp scattering. Filtered and acidified samples were submitted for organic carbon and total nitrogen analysis. Filtered and acidified samples were separated into humic and non-humic fractions by passing through polyvinylpyrrolidinone (PVP). PVP separates dissolved organic matter into humic and non-humic fractions based on hydrogen bonding interactions with vicinal hydroxyl groups as are prevalent in humic substances. The PVP was washed thoroughly with acid and base prior to use. The PVP powder was washed with acid solution by gently shaking in dilute acid solution for roughly 24 hours. After settling, the acid solution was decanted. Then the PVP was rinsed with water and decanted three times. The PVP was then similarly washed with basic solution and afterwards rinsed with water as above. The sequence of acid washing, rinsing, base washing, and rinsing was performed a total of three times. After washing, the PVP is stored in Milli-Q water and from this point on the PVP should not be allowed to dry. A plug of combusted glass wool is added to the columns to prevent the passage of PVP through the columns. Then a slurry of PVP is placed in 250 mL Kontes glass separation columns. Next, a height of around 5 to 7 cm of PVP is added to the columns. Once in the columns, the PVP is further washed with around 30 mL of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH), around 30 mL of Milli-Q water, and around 30 mL of 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl). The separation is then carried out by passing 250 mL of filtered and acidified sample water through the column at a rate no faster than approximately 1 drop per second. The first 100 mL through the column is discarded and then around 30 mL is collected for subsequent protein analysis and around 20 mL is collected for total organic carbon (TOC). The fraction that passes through the column is the non-humic fraction. At this point, the humic fraction is retained on the column. The humic fraction is eluted from the column using around 10 mL portions of 0.01 N NaOH and is collected into 50 mL volumetric flasks. Within about 5 mL of the 50 mL mark, 1 mL of 2N HCl is added to the flask to neutralize the base, then the final volume is adjusted to 50 mL. The humic fraction is then submitted for TOC and TN. Total carbohydrates were measured on filtered (0.2 um) water samples that have been frozen prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed according to the TPTZ method (Myklestad et al., 1997). This method consists of sulfuric acid hydrolysis to convert carbohydrates to reducing sugars with subsequent color formation based on the reduction of iron.

    Citation
    Myklestad, S M 1997. Asensitive and rapid method for analysis of dissolved mono- and polysaccharides in seawater. Marine Chemistry, 56: 279-286.

    Instrumentation
    Whatman 0.7um glass fiber filters Millipore 0.2um hydrophilic membranes Nalgene 1-L and 30-mL brown polyethylene bottles Jobin Yvon Horiba Fluoromax 3 Shimadzu 2101PC Spectrophotometer Carlo Erba NA 1500 Nitrogen/Carbon Analyzer

    Quality Control
    Fluorescence measurements are corrected for internal absorbance quenching. Fluorescence spectra are corrected for internal instrument configuration using excitation and emission correction factors. For DOC, Humic carbon and carbohydrate data, we create calibration curves with standards and then graph the data.
  • Distribution and Intellectual Rights
    Online distribution
    https://fce-lter.fiu.edu/perl/public_data_download.pl?datasetid=LT_ND_Jaffe_001.txt
    Data Submission Date:  2005-08-12

    Intellectual Rights
    This information is released under the Creative Commons license - Attribution - CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The consumer of these data ("Data User" herein) is required to cite it appropriately in any publication that results from its use. The Data User should realize that these data may be actively used by others for ongoing research and that coordination may be necessary to prevent duplicate publication. The Data User is urged to contact the authors of these data if any questions about methodology or results occur. Where appropriate, the Data User is encouraged to consider collaboration or co-authorship with the authors. The Data User should realize that misinterpretation of data may occur if used out of context of the original study. While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and associated documentation, complete accuracy of data sets cannot be guaranteed. All data are made available "as is." The Data User should be aware, however, that data are updated periodically and it is the responsibility of the Data User to check for new versions of the data. The data authors and the repository where these data were obtained shall not be liable for damages resulting from any use or misinterpretation of the data. Thank you.

  • Keywords
    organic matter, dissolved organic carbon, fluorescence, FCE, Florida Coastal Everglades LTER, ecological research, long-term monitoring, Everglades National Park, Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, Florida Bay, carbon, water, dissolved organic carbon, carbohydrates, emissions, fluorescence
  • Dataset Contact
    • Name: Rudolf Jaffe 
    • Position: Project Collaborator
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, Florida 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-2456
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: jaffer@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://serc.fiu.edu/sercindex/index.htm

    • Position: Information Manager
    • Organization: Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program
    • Address: Florida International University
      University Park
      OE 148
      Miami, FL 33199 USA
    • Phone: 305-348-6054
    • Fax: 305-348-4096
    • Email: fcelter@fiu.edu
    • URL: http://fcelter.fiu.edu

  • Data Table and Format
    Data Table:  Monthly monitoring (Fluorescence, UV, Humic and non-Humic Carbon, Carbohydrates, and DOC) data for Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay, Everglades National Park

    Entity Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_001.txt
    Entity Description:
    Monthly monitoring (Fluorescence, UV, Humic and non-Humic Carbon, Carbohydrates, and DOC) data for Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and Florida Bay, Everglades National Park
    Object Name:
    LT_ND_Jaffe_001.txt
    Number of Header Lines:
    1
    Attribute Orientation:
    column
    Field Delimiter:
    ,
    Number of Records:
    736